Supraventricular tachycardia (atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia, atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia) is manifested by heart attacks with a heart rate of 140–220 or more beats/min. They develop under the influence of ectopic impulses from the atria or atrioventricular junction.
There are various types: atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia, atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia, and others.
Various diseases of the cardiovascular system, the presence of chronic bronchopulmonary diseases, alcohol and drug intoxication, endocrine diseases (thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma, etc.), excess body weight, sleep apnea, electrolyte, and acid-base blood disorders predispose to the occurrence of supraventricular tachycardia. Sometimes the cause of their appearance is atrial surgery. Atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia occurs against the background of preexcitation syndromes (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW syndrome)). It is associated with the presence of additional pathways (congenital anomaly) that connect the atria and ventricles to bypass the atrioventricular node. At the same time, a number of people are not diagnosed with diseases that could be the cause of rhythm disturbance.
Symptoms for all supraventricular tachycardia are similar but largely depend on the frequency of the rhythm and the nature of the underlying cardiac pathology. As a rule, attacks of tachycardia begin and end suddenly, have different durations from several seconds to several days, and the frequency of their appearance varies from daily attacks of arrhythmia to 1-2 times a year. At first, a “push” is usually felt in the region of the heart. Then the heartbeat sharply quickens to 120-220 beats / min., but the correct heart rate is maintained. An attack (paroxysm) of the heartbeat may be accompanied by a noise in the head, dizziness, a feeling of constriction of the heart, weakness, a feeling of pulsation in the vessels of the neck. In the presence of concomitant heart diseases and a prolonged attack of tachycardia, a decrease in blood pressure, fainting, shortness of breath and other symptoms of acute left ventricular failure can occur. If arrhythmia occurs with high frequency, for a long time, then even in patients without organic damage to the heart, secondary expansion of the heart chambers develops, and congestive heart failure appears.
Attacks of supraventricular tachycardia require emergency hospitalization to address the issue of medical or surgical treatment. In the presence of this arrhythmia, you should monitor the level of sugar and cholesterol in the blood, maintain normal body weight. Food is recommended to be taken in small portions 4-5 times a day, since overeating leads to irritation of nerve receptors, which are responsible for the work of the heart, and this is fraught with attacks of tachycardia.