Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease when cholesterol and other fats deposit on the inner walls of the arteries in the form of plaques and walls compacted and lose their elasticity. This leads to a narrowing of the diameter of the artery, and hence to the difficulty of blood flow.
Atherosclerosis is more common in men over 35 years old, suffering from frequent stress. Also a hereditary factor has a value. Obesity, gout, gallstones and other disease contribute to the development of the atherosclerosis. Food with excess of animal fat plays an important role as a predisposing factor, but not as the primary cause of atherosclerosis. Low physical activity, psycho emotional stress, traumatizing nervous system, the effect of noise, some of the specific working conditions, etc. have great importance in the origin of this disease. Blood flows freely through the arteries to all parts of the body of healthy people, supplying them with oxygen and other nutrients. If the blood contains an excessive amount of cholesterol, it is deposit on the inner surface of blood vessels, forming plaques. Atherosclerotic plaque is a formation consisting of a mixture of fat (primarily cholesterol) and calcium. Over time, the plaque becomes unstable. Defects arise on its surface. In place of the defect on the inner wall of the vessel a clot begins to form. It is a cluster of cells, mainly platelets (blood elements involved in the clotting process) and blood proteins. Clot, firstly, further narrows the diameter of the artery, and secondly, a piece may come off from clot and go with the bloodstream through the vessel while it gets stuck in the vessel with small diameter. As a result, it stops the blood supply to the relevant area of organ or tissue. This leads to the development of necrosis (infarction). Depending on the place of thrombosis the infarction of kidney, spleen, intestines and so on may develop. Myocardial infarction develops when clot located in blood vessels that feed the heart, and if atherosclerosis affects brain arteries, the risk of stroke increases several times.